Explain rules of attacking and blocking in volleyball from a purely neutral point of view and how to avoid risk of a stampede.

An accident at women's volleyball league finals sparked an endless online scolding battle. Many people spoke out instead of properly analyzing cause and effect of incident in terms of technology, rules, regulations and ethics. earnestly.

1. Analysis in terms of rules

Volleyball rules contain detailed and clear instructions for crossing line and stepping on line under net.

A. Players are allowed to enter opponent's space under net without interfering with opponent's play.

B. While one or both of a player's feet may cross center line and touch opponent's court, part of foot is also in contact with or above center line.

C. If entire foot crosses center line, it will be considered a foul for crossing center line. With exception of feet, no other part of a player's body may touch opponent's court.

The middle line is area shared by both sides. Both sides may advance on line (B), but may not cross line (C).

The purpose of setting rules in public places is to increase confrontation and enhance enjoyment of game.

To encourage confrontation, rules also hide hidden dangers of "accidental injury".

Of course, rulemakers don't want too many accidents, so they stipulate that they can step on line and not cross it.

As long as rules are followed, an accident is an event with a low probability. (Statistically less than 3 per thousand) This is a compromise considering game viewing and player safety.

According to rules, attacking and blocking players may line up.As long as both sides are not breaking rules, if an accident or even injury occurs, neither side is at fault. This kind of accident is part of game as well as a professional athlete. A risk that must be taken.

Therefore, in terms of rules, parties should not be convicted for such an incident, and there are no moral and ethical problems.

2. Analysis from a purely technical point of view

Attacking players should move forward and blocking players should move behind. An attacker cannot "step on" a blocker to deliberately injure a player.

As an experienced professional player, before starting a block, based on position of run-up and break-off of attacking player, he can in principle roughly estimate attacking player's foothold, but it is difficult to draw a conclusion. accurate judgment. And once a stampede occurs, blocker is more likely to be injured than attacker. Thus, blocking player cannot deliberately step on attacker.

From a purely technical point of view, an attacker cannot intentionally "step on" and harm a blocking player.

3. Analysis of laws and regulations

InThere are currently no applicable laws and regulations. If you refer to relevant provisions of laws and regulations related to industrial safety, practitioners should be aware of risks in practice and should take avoidance measures.

Then attacker cannot predict where blocker will land before attack begins. Of course, there is no problem with not being trampled. All it has to do is make sure that does right thing without crossing line. This is best way to avoid risk.

The blocking player, since he takes off after attacker takes off, according to attacker's run-up and break-off, he must approximately estimate attacker's foothold and take evasive measures.

This refers to main striker or supporting attack, blocker may have opportunity to make a decision, a fast attack or a blocker who flies out on spot does not have time to react.

The video of Wang Yuanyuan and Yao Di blocking Xu Ruoi's attack circulated on Internet is best proof. Xu Ruoya not only attacked and stepped on line, but also fell after landing. The two Tianjin players took evasive measures so as not to trample attackers. He embodies their superior skills and good morals.

In terms of laws and regulations, when it comes to preventing blockers from trampling attackers, it is blockers who must take evasive action. However, since there are no applicable laws and rules , they can only be implemented as a link and not with coercive force.

In addition, many of transitions between attack and block in attack and defense are very fast, and blockers may not be able to predict at all, but start and block completely instinctively. Therefore, it is difficult to make mandatory and mandatory norms in form of rules.

4. Ethical analysis

In all sporting competitions, there is a consensus of "prejudice" in general area of ​​equality, and if there is a conflict, then latecomer is violator. Dribbling and blocking offensive fouls in basketball games, as well as reasonable fouls in collisions and blocking in football games, are based on this principle.

Although rules of volleyball are not clear on this, volleyball community is also unanimous on this issue.

Volleyball training materials and technical basics emphasize that volleyball blockers should stay 30 to 40 centimeters from center line. Breaking and blocking at this distance will never step on a legal attacker. This technical question is posed here because these are not rules and are non-binding, and entirely dependent on whether blocking players are willing to abide by them. Because traceChanging blocking method will reduce blocking effect. So let's put this in morals and ethics section.

From an ethical and moral point of view, blocking players must take care not to step on attackers who attack legally.

It needs to be emphasized that coaches and players should not be judged on whether blocking players follow instructions. Because it's not a rule.

Summing up, we can draw most reasonable conclusions:

1. From point of view of rules, when attackers and blockers do not break rules, blocker tramples attacker purely by chance, and no one needs to be held accountable. If someone breaks rules, player who broke rules should be held accountable, but generally, liability is only accepted incidentally and no moral hazard is assumed. enemy must be condemned.

2. From a technical point of view, what attackers can implement, blockers' defense is to follow rules and cannot actively avoid being trampled by blockers.

Blockers should try not to step on attackers. But there is no guarantee that nothing will go wrong.

3. From point of view of rules, there are no applicable rules. Referring to relevant provisions of Safe Production Law, it should be that blocking players take measures to prevent risk, and attackers cannot take active measures. Preventive measures for attackers are to control actions in accordance with rules.

4. From an ethical and moral point of view, blocking players should apply more risk-avoidance measures, and attackers should regulate their actions and not break rules. However, blocker or attacker cannot be morally kidnapped, provided that blocker does not foul and trample attacker.

October 10, 2023